Before I had used C++ I had quite a strong dislike for it. I remember wondering why anyone would voluntarily use C++? and being frustrated when reading interviews with Bjarne Stroustrup because he wouldn’t admit that C++, or at least parts of it, sucks.

Well, for the last few years I’ve actually been using C++ and have ended up changing my mind completely. As I expect most C++ programmers do I stay within a subset of the language, but that subset is now one of my favorite languages: not too complicated, powerful and concise. With the other languages I use regularly, Java, Python and JavaScript, I often find myself thinking “man, what were they thinking when they designed this feature?”. That practically never happens with C++. It can be complex and confusing but when taking the constraints and interactions with other language features into account I can’t think of a single instance where I’ve been able to come up with a better solution. I realize that is quite an arrogant way to put it but look at it this way: coming from an arrogant and opinionated person it is a huge compliment.

One of my favorite features is stack-allocated objects because they enable the resource acquisition is initialization pattern. Given a choice between doing resource handling in Java, using finalizers for objects and finally clauses for scopes, and C++ using RAII, I would choose C++ any day.

The weaknesses of finalizers are well-known so I won’t say more about them. The problem with finally clauses is closely related to the subject of making wrong code look wrong. Finally clauses divorce the code that releases a resource from the code that allocates it, which makes it much harder to see when you forget to clean up.

FileReader in = new FileReader(fileName);
try {
/* process file */
} finally {

Using a finally clause means having the code for cleaning up in on the other side of the code that uses it. You have to scan the whole method to convince yourself that in will indeed be closed. An even worse issue is the fact that the try part has a scope of its own that the finally clause can’t see. This means that anything you do after having allocated a resource will, by default, be hidden from the finally clause. Because of this the pattern above doesn’t scale if you want to open two files:

FileReader in = new FileReader(inFileName);
FileWriter out = new FileWriter(outFileName);
try {
/* process files */
} finally {

If the second constructor throws an exception, and you can’t be sure it doesn’t, then the finally clause is not yet in effect and so in won’t be cleaned up. You can’t declare the out variable in the try clause because then the finally clause can’t see it so what people often end up doing is:

FileReader in = null;
FileWriter out = null;
try {
in = new FileReader(inFileName);
out = new FileWriter(outFileName);
/* process files */
} finally {
if (in != null) in.close();
if (out != null) out.close();[1]

What we’re trying to do here is really very simple: we want to be sure that these files are closed before leaving the scope. With try/finally the solution is more complicated than the problem.

In C++ the destructor of stack-allocated objects give you a way to execute code exactly when you leave a scope. Here’s how you could express the same thing in C++:

own_resource in_resource = fopen(in_file_name, "r");
FILE* in = *in_resource;
if (in == NULL) return;
own_resource out_resource = fopen(out_file_name, "w");
FILE* out = *out_resource;
if (out == NULL) return;
/* process files */

The resources we acquire here are stored in a stack-allocated own_resource; the destructor of the own_resource class takes care of releasing the value stored in it. The language ensures that no matter how control leaves the current scope the own_resource destructors will be called first. Furthermore I can see right at the call to fopen that the result will be cleaned up. You don’t have to use this pattern long before any call that allocates a resource and does not store it in an own_resource (or an own_ptr or some other own_ object) looks very wrong.

How to manage resources is closely related to how to signal errors. Most new languages use some form of exceptions, even though they have acquired something of a bad name. There are many problems with exceptions (none of which can be solved with error codes by the way) but being able to specify how a resource should be cleaned up at the same time as you allocate it does solve many of those problems. Getting this right requires you to assume that any part of your code could throw an exception. It’s a slightly nicer version of preemption really: someone might interrupt you at any nontrivial operation but unlike preemption all you must be able to do is bail out, you don’t have to be able to continue running. That is doable. Furthermore it’s just a fact of life: whether you use exceptions or not you may have to bail out at any nontrivial operation, because of stack overflow, memory exhaustion, SIGINT, or whatever. The best way to defend yourself against that is to program defensively, and to write your code in a style where resource allocation operations stand out if they don’t immediately make provisions for deallocation. I don’t know a language that does that better than C++.

However, as much as I’ve been praising C++, their solution relies much too heavily on static typing for my taste. An interesting challenge is to design a way for flexible object-oriented RAII to work in dynamically typed languages. That is something I will be working on and I hope I’ll eventually be back here with a good solution.

1: As Bob points out in the comments there’s a bug here: if in.close() throws an exception then out will not be closed. It’s another illustration of how hard this stuff is to get right. Note that the C++ example is not affected by this issue: if the destructor for out (which is the first to be called) throws an exception the same rules apply with regards to in: the exception causes us to leave its scope so its destructor will be called.

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